The global CO2-carbonic acid-carbonate system of seawater, although certainly a well-researched topic of interest in the past (see e.g., Zeebe, 2012b and references therein), has risen to the fore in recent years because of the environmental issue of ocean acidification (OA, defined as an increase in the hydrogen ion concentration, or decrease in pH, of seawater). Despite much previous research, there remain pressing questions about how this most important chemical system of seawater operated at the various time scales of the deep time of the Phanerozoic Eon, interglacial-glacial time, and the Anthropocene into the future of the...

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