The inorganic sulfur species, with an oxidation state intermediate between sulfide (-2) and sulfate (+6), play an important role in the sulfur cycle of marine sediments. They tend to be chemically reactive and can be utilised for the energy metabolism of a large diversity of microorganisms. They may be reduced back to sulfide in the presence of H2 or organic substrates that serve as electron donors and carbon sources. They may be oxidised in the presence of suitable electron acceptors, such as oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV) or Fe(III) that enable the conservation of energy for the microorganisms. If neither electron...

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