In the 18th century and earlier, nature was divided into mineral, vegetable, animal, and human “kingdoms”. A picture chosen by Andrew Putnis to illustrate scanning electron microscopy imaging in his book Introduction to Mineral Sciences (Putnis, 1992), which shows an aphid examining an anglesite (PbSO4) crystal on a leaf, nicely portrays three of these elements (Fig. 22.1). Since this time, and with major contributions from Goldschmidt, Krauskopf, Langmuir, Pauling, and Stumm, our knowledge about mineral-water interfaces has grown enormously because of in situ molecular-level experimental studies of such interfaces...

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