In this section we highlight four recent studies of isotope fractionation at mineral-water interfaces that utilised XAFS spectroscopy to determine the dominant types of molecular complexes of Zn, U, and Mo isotope species adsorbed on Fe- or Mn-oxide surfaces (Juillot et al., 2008, 2011; Brennecka et al., 2011; Wasylenki et al., 2011). The key finding in each case was that the sorbed isotope species has a different molecular structure than the solution species of that isotope, clearly showing that mineral-surface reactions play an important role in low-temperature isotope fractionation.

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