When rocks are exposed at Earth’s surface, their equilibrium is disturbed and their minerals react and experience transformations, resulting in the formation of soils and the release of ions, which modify the composition of ground and surface waters. The rates of mineral weathering reactions depend on many factors, including solution composition, crystal structures, bond energies, and ionic transport from reaction sites, resulting in kinetic rather than purely thermodynamic controls. Proton-promoted and ligand-catalysed mineral dissolution are key weathering processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces, as shown by Stumm’s innovative approach to mineral weathering based on mineral-surface coordination chemistry (Furrer and Stumm,...

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