When nominally anhydrous oxygen-based minerals such as metal oxides and silicates are exposed to water, it is likely that their surfaces become hydroxylated, based on evidence presented in Sections 7 and 9. As a result the surface structures should undergo significant relaxation or reconstruction. Thus the assumption that the surfaces of this class of minerals are simple terminations of the bulk structure is likely not correct. However, until recently, this assumption has usually been made because of limited experimental data on the structure of mineral surfaces in contact with water (e.g., Koretsky et al., 1998). The...

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