Water is essential for life and comprises ∼57% of the total body weight of an average human adult (Guyton and Hall, 2011). It also covers ∼70% of Earth’s surface in the form of the oceans. Water is one of the strangest liquids known, with many anomalous properties relative to “normal” liquids such as its increased density upon melting, its density maximum at 4 °C, and its abnormally high surface tension (Chaplin, 2012). As the main liquid in Earth’s critical zone, it is also the major player in low-temperature geochemical processes, including geochemical processes that occur at...

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