Over the past 40 years, surface science studies have revealed a great deal about clean surfaces of solids under controlled conditions (Henrich and Cox, 1994; Brown et al., 1999a; Duke and Plummer, 2002; Al-Abadleh and Grassian, 2003; Diebold, 2003). However, clean solid surfaces exist only in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), so the results of these studies are not generally applicable to the surfaces of environmental solids, i.e. those in contact with environmental gases and liquids, organic matter, fungi, or microbial biofilms. Such surfaces have structures and reactivities that may be altered substantially by...

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