I was taken by surprise by the simultaneous publication in 1985 of three separate papers that presented a nearly identical finding. One was by Harvard’s McElroy and Knox, another by Princeton’s Toggweiler and Sarmiento and the third by Bern’s Wenk and Siegenthaler. As a shorthand, I refer to them as the Harvardton Bears. The surprise was that, using simple three box ocean models, these authors made a case that it was the surface waters of the cold Southern Ocean that controlled the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere (Fig. 28). This came as a shock to...

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