In melissopalynological studies, the investigation of pollen composition in honey samples reveals the geographical and botanical origin of the samples and links them to the regional climatic conditions. Honeybees (Apis mellifera), collect pollen and nectar for their nutritional requirements based on the seasonal availability of surrounding flora. In this study, pollen content in honey was temporarily investigated for seasonal differences of the bee foraged plants. A melissopalynological investigation was applied to honey samples harvested from 13 beehives located in the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa. Multivariate statistics (NMDS and Rarefaction curves) were used to show spatial and temporal clustering of the samples. The melissopalynological data were then compared to the species’ flowering season and a botanical survey of the surrounding area. The turnover in pollen composition for different seasons signifies seasonal variation in pollen types. For example, during summer, bees foraged from fewer floral sources. The highest species richness was observed during winter, suggesting a higher dependence on a diversity of floral resources during the driest months. Various seasonal pollen spectra were characterised by a pollen turnover from numerous species, including Combretum type, Sclerocarya birrea, Poaceae, Harpephyllum caffrum and Lannea schweinfurthii but also neophytes such as Medicago sativa. Therefore, honey samples from the Lowveld region in South Africa reflected the seasonal patterns of the surrounding flora although pollen from taxa such as Combretum spp. (average 56%) and Sclerocarya birrea (average 14%) were continuously sought after by bees throughout the year.

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