The current study’s objective is to infer the specific pollen morphologies of 27 different Euphorbia L. Turkish taxa were cultivated using LM and SEM. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) is developed and cluster analysis is used to examine similarity grouping in this study. The results of the current study showed that tricolporate pollen grains are present in 24 different taxa of Euphorbia, whereas three other taxa E. denticulate, E. esula subsp. tommassiniana, and E. orientalis have tricolpate and tricolporate pollen grains. The results of this study also revealed that pollen grains frequently have a perforated pattern. The use of ornamentations with reticulate- and rugulate-perforate surfaces has also been discovered. The current study revealed that six taxa of Euphorbia have prolate-spheroidal pollen shapes, while 20 of the 27 Euphorbia under study have oblate-spheroidal pollen shapes. But only the pollen of E. grisophylla, 1 of the 27 tested Euphorbia taxa, has a subprolate shape. On the other hand, the PCA results explained 92.16% of the variation, and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram identified four taxonomic groupings, as follows: types 1–4.

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