The Lower Devonian Klerf Formation is an exceptional Konservat-Lagerstätte, exposed at multiple sites in the Waxweiler region in the Eifel area, western Germany. It has been studied for its various fossils, mainly arthropods, fishes, plants, molluscs, brachiopods and crinoids. At Waxweiler, the strata are palaeoecologically interpreted as a prograding deltaic depositional system elongate from NW to SE in the Ardenno-Rhenish area. The Klerf Formation has, however, not been studied in full in terms of its microflora and microfauna. Our study of the formation from two different quarries in the Waxweiler area yielded fairly diverse miospore assemblages dominated by abundant organic matter in varying degrees of coalification. The miospore assemblages are mainly composed of classic Lower Devonian taxa of the Old Red Continent (Laurussia). These belong, among others, to the genera Ambitisporites, Apiculiretusispora and Retusotriletes. Biostratigraphically more important species recovered include Acinosporites lindlarensis, Apiculiretusispora brandtii, Cymbosporites asymetricus, Diatomozonotriletes franklinii, Emphanisporites annulatus, Verruciretusispora dubia and Verrucosisporites polygonalis. In addition, Emphanisporites foveolatus, which is known only from a limited area in the Ardenno-Rhenish region, is also identified, indicating an earliest Pragian to middle Emsian age for the composite section. These assemblages are found to be accompanied by reworked phytoplankton to a much lesser extent. Our results reveal a much larger palaeobotanical diversity from the Rhineland outcrops than previously known, indicating a well-developed Psilophyton-type vegetation with related plants. The results further suggest a likely presence of plants such as Leclercqia and Pertica.