The pollen grains of 38 species and one variety of 17 genera in the family Solanaceae were studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Among them, the pollen morphology of 13 species was described for the first time. Our results suggested that the exine ornamentation of pollen grains could be divided into 11 types, made up of three types (cerebroid, granulate-perforate-punctate and rugulate-perforate) which were observed for the first time in Solanaceae, and other normal types (granulate, granulate-perforate, punctate, reticulate, rugulate, rugulate-striate, spinulose-perforate, striate). In addition, the studied species have pollen grains that differ in size, shape, equatorial view, polar view, aperture features and exine ornamentation, confirming that Solanaceae is a eurypalynous family. Furthermore, the intergeneric and intrageneric relationships of Solanaceae were explored. These results could provide a palynological basis for classification and systematic study of Solanaceae.