This is the first study of exine ultrastructure to be performed in five endemic Mexican Mimosa taxa (M. pringlei var. pringlei, M. calcicola, M. spirocarpa, M. caerulea and M. sousae), one occurring in Mexico and Central America (M. occidentalis), one widely distributed throughout the neotropics (M. setosa var. paludosa), and two in South America (M. irrigua and M. daleoides). Mimosa pollen grains are associated in polyads (12 grains), octads and tetrads. Polyads and octads in members of the basal clade of Mimosa phylogeny (sect. Mimadenia) evince the affinity of Mimosa with Piptadenia. Octads are retained in sect. Batocaulon and tetrads are evolved in this section. More recent clades (sect. Habbasia, Mimosa and Calothamnos) only show tetrads varying in size and shape. Polyads show greater variation in the exine layers, with a bistratified granular structure. Octads display a columellar-granular infratectal structure while tetrads in sect. Mimosa exhibit a less variable exine with a granular infratectal structure.