A detailed assessment of Poaceae pollen morphology was performed using light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM, respectively), digital image processing and multivariate data analysis of species from the montane savanna (canga vegetation) of the Serra dos Carajas region in the southeastern Amazon to discriminate the lower taxonomic levels and, accordingly, the habitat types of Poaceae. Poaceae pollen are generally stenopalynous monoporate grains with annulate and operculate pores, and distinguishing species by ornamentation using LM is impossible. Under SEM, Poaceae have mainly areolate microechinate/granulose ornamentation, except for Eragrostis maypurensis (rugulate-microechinate), Andropogon bicornis, Trichanthecium parvifolium and T. polycomum (rugulate granulose), and Rhytachne gonzalezii (microechinate). Digital image processing of ornamentation under SEM coupled with multivariate data analysis allowed for differentiation between the E. maypurensis, R. gonzalezii, A. capillaris, Otachyrium versicolor, Paspalum carinatum and T. polycomum. Distinguishing species of the wet savanna, such as Isachne polygonoides, R. gonzalezii, O. versicolor, P. virgatum, and T. polycomum, from species of the dry savanna can improve paleoecological and paleoclimatic interpretations.

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