Paralychnophora is an exclusively Brazilian genus that has few species and a confusing taxonomy. The current study aims to help us better understand this genus by analysing pollen grains from six Paralychnophora species. The pollen grains were acetolysed, analysed and photomicrographed under light microscopy. They were not acetolysed for the scanning electron microscopy analysis. Features such as shape, size, exine constitution and aperture were investigated. The species were separated in a pollen key, and their features were of great diagnostic value for the genus. The ornamentation pattern allowed separating P. patriciana from P. reflexoauriculata, and it grouped the other taxa. P. atkinsiae distinguished itself by the polar area index (PAI) size. P. bicolor, P. harley and P. glaziouana were easily separated from each other when other features such as size, shape, distance between the spines and aperture dimensions were analysed together.