The Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Cañadón Asfalto Basin, Patagonia, Argentina, is interpreted as fluvial-lacustrine deposits. A palynological study of the lower and middle parts of the unit, at the Cañadón Lahuincó and Cañadón Caracoles sections, Cerro Cóndor Depocentre Chubut province, northwestern Patagonia, Argentina is presented. The quantitative composition of the palynofloras is characterised by the dominance of pollen produced by the conifer families Cheirolepidiaceae (Classopollis) and Araucariaceae (mainly Araucariacites and Callialasporites), suggesting that warm-temperate and relatively humid conditions under highly seasonal climate prevailed during the depositional times of the unit. The abundance of Botryococcus supports the presence of a shallow lake with probably saline conditions. Five palynomorph ecogroups (PEGs) were recognised: upland, lowland, riverside, coastal lake and aquatic. The ecological requirements of the different plant families forming the PEGs enable the inference of a sub-tropical palaeoclimate for the Cañadón Asfalto region during late Early Jurassic to mid Middle Jurassic, which is consistent with the ‘seasonally dry (winterwet)’ biome.