The new term "galeate" acritarchs is proposed for Lower Paleozoic taxa characterized by a hemispherical vesicle outline and with a large polar excystment opening closed by an operculum. Included in the "galeate" acritarch plexus are such common genera as Caldariola Molyneux in Molyneux & Rushton 1988, Cymatiogalea Deunff 1961, Priscogalea Deunff 1961, and Stelliferidium Deunff et al. 1974. An historical overview, a revision of the taxonomic concept, and proposals for a classification scheme at the generic level are presented. The following "galeate" taxa are described from the late Tremadoc to early Arenig subsurface of Rugen (NE-Germany): Caldariola glabra (Martin 1973) Molyneux in Molyneux & Rushton 1988, Caldariola sp. cf. C. glabra, Cymatiogalea deunffi Jardine et al. 1974, Cymatiogalea messaoudi Jardine et al. 1974, Cymatiogalea sp. cf. C. cristata (Downie 1958) Rauscher 1974, "Stelliferidium?" sp. 1, and "Stelliferidium?" sp. 2.