The middle Carboniferous was an interval of global change when the climate was transitioning from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. Field collections of paleotropical brachiopod assemblages across the Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary reveal a taxonomic turnover event in which the overall diversity structure is conserved, despite an apparent regional extinction of 63% of latest Mississippian genera and an apparent regional origination of 50% of earliest Pennsylvanian. An analysis of the global ranges of the brachiopods encountered in the field reveals that turnover was driven primarily by extirpation and immigration rather than true extinctions and originations. Taxonomic richness and evenness are indistinguishable between the latest Mississippian and earliest Pennsylvanian stages. Additive diversity partitioning shows that the within-collection, between-collections (i.e., within-bed), and between-bed diversity components do not change across the Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary for richness or evenness. Rank-abundance plots of genera show the same distribution for both stages, but with no correlation between the Mississippian abundances of range-through genera and their abundance in the Pennsylvanian. Detrended correspondence analysis shows a major change in taxonomic composition across that Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary and consistency in the general gradient along which genera were distributed. An estimation of spatio-temporal heterogeneity of taxonomic composition within each stage reveals that the earliest Pennsylvanian was significantly more homogeneous. These results suggest that middle Carboniferous brachiopod assemblages from tropical shallow-water carbonate platform settings were organized by some factor that was independent of the specific taxa present. Furthermore, the increased homogeneity in taxonomic composition in the Morrowan did not affect the overall diversity structure. Strong competitive interactions among taxa do not appear to be important in determining the taxonomic compositions and abundances of brachiopod stage-level assemblages.