The negative consequences of anthropogenic activities such as agriculture and urbanization (e.g., deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions, and pollution) have become exacerbated by rapid rates of human population increase (see Pimm et al. 2001). Subsequent habitat loss and modification has accelerated rates of extinction, creating a biodiversity crises which arguably is one of the most pressing problems of the twenty-first century. Although causative agents are unclear, the fossil record suggests that biotas undergo periods of massive extinction as well as considerable diversification (Alroy et al. 2001; Jackson and Johnson 2001) at the global scale, even in the...

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