It is difficult to assign the animal-like body fossils of the late Neoproterozoic to crown metazoan phyla. Many Neoproterozoic fossils appear to share an architectural theme, which was characterized by Seilacher (1984, 1989) as modular; he noted that the modules, named pneus, could be arranged in a series of distinctive geometries to produce many of the Neoproterozoic fossil morphologies. The assemblages of pneus formed “quilted” constructions. Seilacher further suggested that these fossils might represent a multicellular clade that evolved independently of Metazoa—in effect, that they represented a kingdom of their own, which he named the Vendozoa. In later contributions, Seilacher...

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