Abstract

The evolution of septal complexity in fossil ammonoids has been widely regarded as an adaptive response to mechanical stresses imposed on the shell by hydrostatic pressure. Thus, septal (and hence sutural) complexity has been used as a proxy for depth: for a given amount of septal material greater complexity permitted greater habitat depth. We show that the ultimate septum is the weakest part of the chambered shell. Additionally, finite element stress analyses of a variety of septal geometries exposed to pressure stresses show that any departure from a hemispherical shape actually yields higher, not lower, stresses in the septal surface. Further analyses show, however, that an increase in complexity is consistent with selective pressures of predation and buoyancy control. Regardless of the mechanisms that drove the evolution of septal complexity, our results clearly reject the assertion that complexly sutured ammonoids were able to inhabit deeper water than did ammonoids with simpler septa. We suggest that while more complexly sutured ammonoids were limited to shallower habitats, the accompanying more complex septal topograhies enhanced buoyancy regulation (chamber emptying and refilling), through increased surface tension effects.

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