The structure of glasses and the melts from which they are formed is intrinsically disordered, making their structural characterization difficult. Whilst the structure of solid minerals can be readily determined from the periodicity of the crystallographic unit cell, the absence of long-range symmetry in glasses and melts means their “unit cell” is essentially of infinite extent. However, although structurally disordered, the atomic-scale arrangements in glasses and melts are not strictly random. As detailed in Henderson and Stebbins (2022, this volume), glasses typically exhibit a high degree of local chemical short-range order (SRO) in the form of well-defined coordination polyhedra...

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