Diffusion results from random motion of particles and entities. Diffusion in melts and magmas is due to thermally excited random motion of atoms, ions, and clusters, and plays a critical role in magmatic and volcanic processes. In melts and magmas, diffusion is one of the two mechanisms of mass transfer; the other being bulk flow (referred to as convection or advection). When both are present, diffusion refers to the dispersive motion relative to the mean bulk flow in a given reference frame (Richter et al. 1998). Diffusion plays critical roles in controlling magma mixing (Watson 1982;...

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