The history of the discovery of stable isotopes and later, their influence of chemical and physical phenomena originates in the 19th century with discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel in 1896 (Becquerel 1896a–g). The discovery catalyzed a range of studies in physics to develop an understanding of the nucleus and the properties influencing its stability and instability that give rise to various decay modes and associated energies. Rutherford and Soddy (1903) later suggested that radioactive change from different types of decay are linked to chemical change. Soddy later found that this is a general phenomenon and...

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