Of the 92 elements naturally present on modern Earth, only 21 are monotopic. The remainder are composed of multiple isotopes, many of which are either stable or decay over such extraordinarily long timescales that they may be considered effectively stable for appropriate applications. These isotopes of a given element are distinguished by the number of neutrons within their nucleus, resulting in subtle differences in mass. Though most fundamental characteristics of the isotopes of a given element are the same (e.g., charge, atomic number), their relative distributions in natural environments are altered as they are subjected to a range of mass-dependent...

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