Chemical reactions involving both solid and gas species are pervasive not only in the natural world, but also in engineered systems. Many common, large-scale industrial processes involve chemical reactions and physical phenomena that occur at a gas–solid interface. The industrial scale production of chemical commodities, oil refining, metallurgy, minerals processing, pulp and paper production, food and consumer goods processing, and the power sector all contain good examples of gas–solid reactions. The processing conditions and operation temperatures for these industrial operations vary widely and are highly dependent on the application. As an example, the “high-temperature” polymerization of propylene takes place at...

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