Evaporation and condensation of crystalline or amorphous materials at high temperature are the fundamental processes at low pressure in circumstellar environments such as protoplanetary disks and outflows around evolved stars and supernovae, where liquid is basically unstable. Condensation or evaporation of various dust species in a multi-elemental system causes elemental and/or isotopic fractionation, which are commonly found in astronomical observations or in presolar grains included in chondrites derived from late stage stars. Evaporation and condensation in the high temperature region of a protoplanetary disk may be related to chemical diversity of planets and planetesimals including asteroids.

Evaporation and condensation are...

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