Despite its importance in geological sciences, our understanding of interactions between gas and condensed phases (comprising solids and liquids) remains clouded by the fact that, often, only indirect evidence remains for their occurrence. This arises from the tendency for the vapor phase to escape from the condensed phase with which it interacts, owing to its much lower density and thus greater volume. For a gas that is sufficiently tenuous that interactions do not occur between its constituent molecules, this relationship is quantified in the ideal gas law (Clapeyron 1834):

...
 
PV=nRT
(1)
...

where P...

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