Natural variations in the isotopic composition of some 50 chemical elements are now being used in geochemistry for studying transport processes, estimating temperature, reconstructing ocean chemistry, identifying biological signatures, and classifying planets and meteorites. Within the past decade, there has been growing interest in measuring isotopic variations in a wider variety of elements, and improved techniques make it possible to measure very small effects. Many of the observations have raised questions concerning when and where the attainment of equilibrium is a valid assumption. In situations where the distribution of isotopes within and among phases is not representative of the equilibrium...

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