In 1986, O’Neil wrote a Reviews in Mineralogy chapter on experimental aspects of isotopic fractionation. He noted that in order to fully understand and interpret the natural variations of light stable isotope ratios in nature, it was essential to know the magnitude and temperature dependence of the isotopic fractionation factor amongst minerals and fluids. At that time it was difficult to imagine that this would become true for the heavier, so called non-traditional stable isotopes, as well. Since the advent of the multiple collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometer (MC–ICP–MS), natural variations of stable isotope ratios have been found for...

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