In high-temperature geochemistry and cosmochemistry, highly siderophile and strongly chalophile elements can be defined as strongly preferring metal or sulfide, respectively, relative to silicate or oxide phases. The highly siderophile elements (HSE) comprise Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, and Au and are defined by their extreme partitioning (> 104) into the metallic phase, but will also strongly partition into sulfide phases, in the absence of metal. The HSE are highly refractory, as indicated by their high melting and condensation temperatures and were therefore concentrated in early accreted nebular materials. Within the HSE are the platinum-group elements...

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