There is an extensive literature relating to As contents of various geological and biological media, driven in large part because of As-related diseases, which include for example, melanosis, leucomelanosis, keratosis, hyper-keratosis, oedema, gangrene, skin cancer and extensive liver damage. As an example, using the keywords “arsenic” and “environmental” in the academic search engine Scopus yields >12,300 references (title, abstract, and keywords). However, there is also increasing recognition that the toxicology of As is controlled by the form (speciation) of As (Scopus “Arsenic” and “speciation” yields >2900 references). It is commonly held that inorganic As(III) is the most toxic form, followed...

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