When Frank Hawthorne (1988) edited the Reviews in Mineralogy volume on “Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Geology,” all the experiments presented had been performed at room pressure and room temperature because, at that time, vibrational and X-ray techniques were already quite difficult at ambient conditions so more sophisticated sample environments were not a priority. However, it has now become somewhat easier to perform experiments in situ at high temperatures (HT), high pressures (HP) or under combined high temperature and pressure (HP-HT). These types of experiments are becoming routine on crystals, glasses and liquids (see Shen and Wang 2014, this...

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