The previous Reviews in Mineralogy volume on spectroscopic methods (Vol. 18 Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Geology, Frank C. Hawthorne, ed. 1988), contained a single chapter on X-ray absorption spectroscopy which reviewed aspects of both EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) (Brown et al. 1988, Chapter 11) However, since publication of that review there have been considerable advances in our understanding of XANES theory and applications. Hence EXAFS and XANES have been separated into their own individual chapters in the current volume. In this chapter we endeavor to bring the...

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