Synchrotron sources provide X-radiation with high energy and high brilliance that are well suited for high-pressure (HP) research. Powerful micron-sized sampling probes of high energy radiation have been widely used to interact with minute samples through the walls of pressure vessels, to investigate material properties in situ under HP. Since the late 1970s, HP synchrotron research has become a fast growing field. Of mineralogical interests are the abilities for studying structure, elasticity, phase stability/transition, and transport properties of minerals and melts at pressure-temperature conditions corresponding to the deep Earth.

The most commonly used HP apparatus are the diamond anvil cell...

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