Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, also known as electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, is a group of techniques used to study paramagnetic species that contain one or more unpaired electrons. The basic principles of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, because they both deal with interactions between electromagnetic radiation and magnetic moments. However, the former is based on the excitation of electron spins, whereas nuclear spins are excited in the latter. EPR as a structural probe provides a wealth of information about the local structures and dynamic processes of the paramagnetic species studied, and is...

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