When monochromatic radiation νo, is incident on a system (gas, solid, liquid, glass, whether colored or transparent) most of the radiation is transmitted through the system without change, but some scattering of this radiation can also occur (approximately 1 in 107 photons). The scattered radiation corresponds to ν′ = νo ± νm. In molecular systems, the energy of the scattered light (in wavenumbers, νm) is found to lie principally in the range associated with transitions between vibrational, rotational and electronic energy levels. Furthermore, the scattered radiation is generally polarized differently from that...

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