The basic physical principles of X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure (XAFS) are presented. XAFS is an element-specific spectroscopy in which measurements are made by tuning the X-ray energy at and above a selected core-level binding energy of a specified element. Although XAFS is a well-established technique providing reliable and useful information about the chemical and physical environment of the probe atom, its requirement of an energy-tunable X-ray source means it is primarily done with synchrotron radiation sources and so is somewhat less common than other spectroscopic analytical methods. XAFS spectra are especially sensitive to the oxidation state and coordination chemistry of the...

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