Core-level and valence-level X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), developed in the late 1950’s and 1960’s by Siegbahn and coworkers (Siegbahn et al. 1969; Carlson 1975; Barr 1993; Fadley 2010) has become an invaluable tool over the last 40 years for studying mainly the surface properties and reactivity of a wide range of minerals, predominantly oxides (for reviews, see: Heinrich and Cox 1994; Chambers 2000; Salmeron and Schlogl 2008, and references in Bancroft et al. 2009; Newburg et al. 2011), sulfides (for reviews, see Hochella 1988; Bancroft and Hyland 1990;...

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