The goal of geologic CO2 sequestration is not just to pump large volumes of supercritical carbon dioxide into underground repositories but to keep it there for hundreds to thousands of years, preferably in chemically bound form. The permanence of CO2 storage in geological repositories is important since large leakage rates would diminish the CO2 abatement achieved with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Effective permanent geologic CO2 storage depends ultimately on the interactions of the supercritical CO2 with the minerals and fluids present in the host underground repositories and their caprock sealing (Xu et al....

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