Caprocks are impermeable sedimentary formations that overlie prospective geologic CO2 storage reservoirs. As such, caprocks will be relied upon to trap CO2 and prevent vertical fluid migration and leakage. Natural and industrial analogues provide evidence of long-term performance of caprocks in holding buoyant fluids. However, the large volumes of CO2 that must be injected and stored to meaningfully reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will exert unprecedented geomechanical and geochemical burdens on caprock formations due to elevated formation pressures and brine acidification.

Caprocks have inherent vulnerabilities in that wellbores, faults and fractures that transect caprock formations may provide...

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