The injection of CO2 into the Earth’s subsurface drives the fluid-rock system into “far-from- equilibrium” conditions, which means that the fluxes that return the system to equilibrium are nonlinearly related to the generalized driving forces (e.g., chemical affinities and gradients in the fluid pressures and chemical potentials). The nonlinear response results in emergent structures and self-organization (Prigogine 1968, 1980; Ortoleva 1994; Lasaga 1998; Jamtveit and Meakin 1999), of which the reactive infiltration instability is a well-known example in the Earth Sciences that is directly applicable to CO2 injection and caprock integrity (...

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