Nucleation is the seminal event in formation of new mineral phases. The subject has a long history, finding its modern roots in the work of Gibbs in the late 1800’s (Gibbs 1876, 1878) and continuing through the efforts of Stransky and others in the mid-20th century (Gutzow 1997). What emerged has come to be known as classical nucleation theory (CNT). Within this model, mineral nucleation comes about through ion-by-ion addition to a growing cluster (Fig. 1A), whose origin lies in the inherent thermodynamic fluctuations of the solution. In recent years, this well-accepted...

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