Geological carbon storage will require that less than ~0.01% of the mass of CO2 stored escapes per year if significant climatic impacts are to be avoided (Hepple and Benson 2005). This requires that the geological storage sites retain much of the CO2 for more than 10,000 years. Predicting the security of CO2 in storage sites for such time periods raises questions which relate to a number of poorly understood fundamental processes concerning fluid-rock interactions in the near subsurface of the Earth. Because many of these processes are sluggish it is not possible to predict their...

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