Chemical interactions between fluids and minerals play a central role in numerous geological processes. In a hydrothermal environment, such reactions are usually referred to as fluid-rock interaction or water-rock interaction and lead to alteration of rocks by changing the mineral assemblages and compositions. During fluid-rock interaction the fluid’s chemical composition also changes, some components being depleted upon secondary mineral formation and others being enriched due to primary mineral dissolution. An example is the interaction between rocks at the seafloor and heated seawater during hydrothermal convection at mid-ocean ridges. There, the rocks are altered, extracting Mg and SO4 from the...

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