The first quantitative studies of the thermodynamics of hydrothermal solutions were made in 1903 by A.A. Noyes and W.D. Coolidge (1903), who used the change in conductance associated with ionization to measure the ionization constants of water and aqueous acids and bases up to about 300 °C at steam saturation. The need to develop nuclear reactor coolant chemistry in the 1950’s led national laboratories in several countries to develop new experimental methods for measuring solubility products, equilibrium constants and activity coefficients under the corrosive conditions encountered at elevated temperatures. Complementary studies by geochemists investigating geothermal systems and ore body...

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