Geological aqueous fluids operate in a wide range of temperatures (from 0 to 1000 °C) and depths (from Earth surface to ~10s km), over which the physical-chemical properties of water and water-salt-gas systems and, consequently, their capacities to dissolve minerals and to transport chemical elements are very different. The principal types of geological fluids are illustrated in Figure 1, showing the domains of the liquid, vapor, and supercritical fluid phases in the water phase diagram as a function of temperatures (T) and pressures (P) typical of Earth’s crust. Understanding the impact of these different fluid...

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