Throughout Earth’s crust and upper mantle, fluids play the dominant role in transporting and concentrating Earth’s energy and mineral resources (Liebscher and Heinrich 2007). Furthermore, the flux of fluids, which act as both reaction media and reactants, strongly influences the genesis and evolution of many different kinds of rocks. Among many different types of fluids, those containing volatile carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C-H-O) species tend to dominate in the lithosphere along with various electrolytes and silica. These fluids commonly contain methane as both a major constituent and an important energy source. Conventional natural gas deposits reside in sedimentary...

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