Surficial observations reveal carbon in a great variety of organic, inorganic, and biological forms that subduct with descending slabs and rise and erupt in volcanoes. Due to the lack of experimental means for studying carbon under extreme deep Earth conditions, we have limited information on the density and bonding nature of carbon-bearing fluids, and virtually no information on the texture and porosity of fluid-rock assemblages. Our knowledge on some of the most fundamental questions surrounding the deep carbon cycle becomes increasingly tenuous as we move into the planet. For example, in what form do carbon-bearing materials exist deep within Earth...

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